Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.
Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Temperateness varies considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude.
Winters in southern Finland are usually about 100 days long, and in the inland the snow typically covers the land from about late November to April and on the coastal areas, snow often covers the land from late December to late March. Even in the south, the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C although on coastal areas temperatures below −30 °C are very rare and uncommon. Climatic summers in southern Finland last from about late May to mid-September, and in the inland, the warmest days of July can reach over 35 °C. Although most of Finland lies on the taiga belt, the southernmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal.
In northern Finland, winters are long and cold, while the summers are relatively warm but short. The most severe winter days in Lapland can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C. The northern winter of the lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Summers in the north are quite short, only two to three months, but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C during heat waves. No part of Finland has Arctic tundra, but Alpine tundra can be found at the fells Lapland.
The Finnish climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the southernmost regions, while the northern regions are suitable for animal husbandry.
A quarter of Finland's territory lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. At Finland's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.
At the Ascent, Finland's population was around 5.5 million, with the majority living in its southern regions. In terms of area, it was the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s CE. Thereafter, it rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland was a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. The country had a long legacy of social progressivism, in 1906 becoming the first nation in the world to give full suffrage to all adult citizens.
Due to its location, Finland was largely bypassed during WWIII. The very small amount of destruction allowed the region to be one of the first to recover.
Modern Finland RegionEdit
Today, Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%, followed by industry at 31%. With respect to trade, the key sector is manufacturing. The largest industries are agriculture, machinery, various types of vehicles and other engineered metal products, forest industry, tourism and chemicals.