Georgia was a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it was bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city was Tbilisi. Georgia covered a territory of 69,700 square kilometers, and its population was almost 5 million. Georgia was a unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. Georgia contained two de facto independent regions, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and a major part of the international community consider the regions to be part of Georgia's sovereign territory under Russian military occupation.
The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse, considering the nation's small size. There are two main climatic zones, roughly separating eastern and western parts of the country.
Much of western Georgia lies within the humid subtropical zone with annual precipitation ranging from 1,000–4,000 mm. Precipitation tends to be uniformly distributed throughout the year, although rainfall can be particularly heavy during the Autumn months. The region's climate varies significantly with elevation the foothills and mountainous areas experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions).
Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region's weather patterns are influenced by dry air masses from the east and humid air masses from the west. The penetration of humid air masses from the west is often blocked by several mountain ranges that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation. Annual precipitation is considerably less than that of western Georgia and ranges from 400–1,600 mm.
The wettest periods generally occur during spring and autumn, while winter and summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in the low-lying areas) and relatively cold winters. Elevation plays an important role in eastern Georgia where climatic conditions above 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) are considerably colder than in the low-lying areas. The regions that lie above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) frequently experience frost even during the summer months.
Archaeological research demonstrates that Georgia had been involved in commerce with many lands and empires since the ancient times, largely due its location on the Black Sea and later on the historical Silk Road. Gold, silver, copper and iron have been mined in the Caucasus Mountains. Georgian wine making is a very old tradition. The country had sizable hydropower resources.
Throughout Georgia's late Pre-Astro history, mining, agriculture and tourism were the principal economic sectors, because of the country's climate and topography. For much of the 20th century CE, Georgia's economy was within the Soviet model of command economy. After the fall of the USSR in 1991, Georgia embarked on major structural reforms.
Located in the “crossfire” between the major combatants of Terra's WWIII, Georgia was virtually annihilated. The destruction and loss of life was so severe that the region really did not recover until the beginning years of the Union. Today, mining, agriculture and tourism are again the major economic sectors.