The Iberian Peninsula – commonly called Iberia , is the third largest European peninsula (after the Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas); it is located in the extreme southwest of the continent. The area is approximately 582,000 km2. There were three countries in it: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, as well as a part of France and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The Iberian peninsula has two dominant climate types; the oceanic climate seen in the Atlantic coastal region resulting in even temperatures with relatively cool summers. The southern half of Portugal and most of Spain have mediterranean climates with various precipitation and temperatures depending on latitude and position versus the sea. There are also localized semi-arid climates in central Spain, with temperatures resembling a more continental mediterranean climate. In other cases highland alpine climates can be found. The hottest temperatures of Europe are found in the Spanish interior, with Córdoba averaging around 37 °C in July. The Spanish mediterranean coast usually averages around 30 °C in summer. In sharp contrast A Coruña at the northern tip of Galicia has a summer daytime high average at just below 23 °C. This cool and wet summer climate is replicated throughout most of the northern coastline. Winter temperatures are more consistent throughout the peninsula, although frosts are common in the Spanish interior, even though daytime highs are usually some way above the freezing point.