Climate characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.
Winter and summer temperatures can vary greatly between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. In the case of winters for instance, Lisbon experiences very mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snow practically unknown, whereas Madrid has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. In the case of summers for instance, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in the summer (48 °C (118 °F) has been measured. In contrast, San Francisco has mild summers due to the upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the coast producing regular summer fog that does not reach far inland. Areas with this climate receive almost all of their precipitation during their winter, autumn and spring seasons, and may go anywhere from 4 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation.
Lands around the Mediterranean Sea form the largest area where this climate type is found, but it also prevails in much of California, parts of Australia, South Africa, sections of Central Asia, and in central Chile. Most historic cities of the Mediterranean, including Athens, Barcelona, Jerusalem, Marseille, and Rome, lie within Mediterranean climate zones, as do major cities outside of the Mediterranean, such as Lisbon, Adelaide, Perth, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Santiago de Chile.