Brazil (Portuguese: Brasil [bɾaˈziw]), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil), was the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the world's fifth-largest country by both area and population, it was the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language–and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil had a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It bordered all other South American countries at the time of the Terran Ascent except Ecuador and Chile and covered 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin included a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats. This unique environmental heritage made Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and was the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's constitution at the time of it's fall under the the alliance of Venezuela and Argentina in Terran WWIII was formulated in 1988, defined it as a democratic federal republic.
The federation was composed of the union of the Federal District, 32 states, and over 7,000 municipalities. The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Brazil's economy was the world's ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP (PPP) in 2015 . A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence. Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth. Brazil was a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP, and the Latin Union. Brazil was a regional power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs, with some analysts identifying it as an emerging global power in the early 21st century. One of the world's major breadbaskets, Brazil was the largest producer of coffee for over 200 years.
Even though the government at the national and state levels fell as a result of sneak attacks by troops belonging to the alliance of Venezuela and Argentina (along with some traitors in high places), Brazil's recovery was somewhat faster than theirs, although the recovery process only finished after the United Earth became part of the United Stars of the Galaxy.