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Bushveld Igneous Complex
The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust. It has been tilted and eroded forming the outcrops around what appears to be the edge of a great geological basin: the Transvaal Basin. It is approximately 2 billion years old and is divided into four different limbs: the northern, southern, eastern, and western limbs. The Bushveld Complex comprises the Rustenburg Layered Suite, the Lebowa Granites and the Rooiberg Felsics, that is overlain by the Karoo sediments. The site was first discovered around 1897 by Gustaaf Molengraaff.

Located in South Africa, the BIC contains some of the richest ore deposits on Earth The complex contains the world's largest reserves of platinum-group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs)—platinum , palladium , osmium , iridium , rhodium , and ruthenium along with vast quantities of iron , tin , chromium , titanium , and vanadium . These are used in, but not limited to, jewelry, automobiles, and electronics. Gabbro or norite is also quarried from parts of the complex and rendered into dimension stone. There have been more than 20 mine operations. There have been studies of potential uranium deposits. The complex is well known for its chromitite reef deposits, particularly the Merensky reef and the UG-2 reef. It represents about 75 percent of the world’s platinum and about 50 percent of the world's palladium resources. In this respect, the Bushveld complex is unique and one of the most economically significant mineral deposit complex in the world.

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