Canada was a country in North America.
Canada extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, south to the United States and northward into the Arctic Ocean. At 9.98 million km2 in total, Canada was Earth's second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Its common border with the United States formed the world's longest land border. Canada also had the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 202,080 kilometers.
Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15° C, but can drop below −40° C with severe wind chills. In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s° C, while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30° C, with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40° C.
The land that was Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, colonies were established on the region's Atlantic coast. On July 1, 1867 three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal dominion of Canada as a British Commonwealth. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing dominion. In 1931, Britain granted Canada full independence in most matters with the Statute of Westminster 1931. The Canada Act of 1982 severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada played roles in all three of Earth's World Wars, supplying arms and troops as possible.
Canada was a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The country was officially bilingual at the federal level. It was one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries.
Canadian economy today is dominated by the service industry, which employs about 75% of the country's workforce. Canada is additionally one of the Earth’s largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains. Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby sources of timber.