The Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia, written c. 150 CE.

Geography (from Greek, geographia, lit. "earth description") is a field of science dedicated to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of a planet. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276–194 BCE). Four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analysis of the natural and the sentient phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of the sentient-land relationship, and research in the earth sciences.

Modern Union geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand a planet and all of its sentient and natural complexities - not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Geography is divided into two main branches: sentient geography and physical geography.

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