The Nobel Prize is a set of Terran awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895 CE. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901. The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established by Sweden's central bank in 1968. The Nobel prize was made of the mixture of gold and silver with 24 carat or 4.8.g gold coating. Between 1901 and 2012, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 555 times to 856 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 835 individuals (791 men and 44 women) and 21 organizations. Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people. The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.
The prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, Terra, except for the peace prize which is awarded in Oslo, Norway, Terra. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences; the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded not by a Swedish organization but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
The various prizes were awarded yearly. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation. In 2012, each prize was worth 8 million SEK (c. US$1.2 million, €0.93 million). Due to the massive destruction of Terra's WWIII, the instability of United Earth's early years and the Ascent, the various committees met in 2100 and made the award a decennial event.