220px-Venus globe
is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[11] The planet is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows.[13] Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it has been referred to by ancient cultures as the Morning Star or Evening Star.

Venus is classified as a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" owing to their similar size, gravity, and bulk composition (Venus is both the closest planet to Earth and the planet closest in size to Earth). It is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth's. With a mean surface temperature of 735 K, Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System. It has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor does it seem to have any organic life to absorb it in biomass. Venus is believed to have previously possessed oceans,[14] but these vaporized as the temperature rose due to the runaway greenhouse effect.[15] The water has most probably photodissociated, and, because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind.[16] Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism.

Pronunciation [1]i/ˈvnəs/
Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
Orbital characteristics[4]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion *108,939,000 km
  • 0.728 213 AU
Perihelion *107,477,000 km
  • 0.718 440 AU
Semi-major axis *108,208,000 km
  • 0.723 327 AU
Eccentricity 0.006 756
Orbital period *224.698 day*0.615 190 yr
Synodic period 583.92 days[2]
Average orbital speed 35.02 km/s
Mean anomaly 50.115°
Inclination *3.394 58° to Ecliptic*3.86° to Sun’s equator
Longitude of ascending node 76.678°
Argument of perihelion 55.186°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius *6,051.8 ± 1.0 km[5]
  • 0.949 9 Earths
Flattening 0[5]
Surface area *4.60×108 km2
  • 0.902 Earths
Volume *9.28×1011 km3
  • 0.866 Earths
Mass *4.868 5×1024 kg
  • 0.815 Earths
Mean density 5.243 g/cm3
Equatorial surface gravity *8.87 m/s2*0.904 g
Escape velocity 10.36 km/s
Sidereal rotation period −243.018 5 day (Retrograde)
Equatorial rotation velocity 6.52 km/h (1.81 m/s)
Axial tilt 177.3°[2]
North pole right ascension *18 h 11 min 2 s
  • 272.76°[6]
North pole declination 67.16°
Albedo *0.67 (geometric)[7]
Surface temp.Kelvin


min mean max
735 K[2][11][12]
462 °C
Apparent magnitude *brightest −4.9[8][9] (crescent)
  • −3.8[10] (full)
Angular diameter 9.7"–66.0"[2]
Surface pressure 93 bar (9.3 MPa)
Composition *~96.5% carbon dioxide*~3.5% nitrogen



Venus was the third destination of Earth Explorers and settlers right after The Ascent. (First Luna then Marsand then Venus) The first manned expedition took place in 2093, only a week after the first manned expedition to Mars. Josef Golgov of United Earth Territory Russia insisted on being called a Cosmonaut and he christened the first base on Venus Venera City, honoring the first Human probes launched by the Soviet Union in 1961.

Venus today is the most densely populated planet in the Sol System. 9 Billion Inhabitants call Venus home, while another 12 Million commute to the Planet everyday from around the Sol System but mostly from Earth. (by Transmatter Tunnel, System Tram and InterSystem Shuttles and Taxies) Unlike Mars no real Terra Formingefforts have been made and even tough technology exists to change Venus in a Garden world, Venusians have always voted against Terra Firming every time the subject came up. Twenty of the 56 Towns and cities are Domed Surface cities and the rest is underground.

Venus has the biggest planet based Space Port in the Sol System ( The largest Port is of course Sol Hub)

Venus is famous for its Zoo. Venera City Zoo (or simply Venus Zoo) is the largest most elaborate zoological facility in the known Universe with a unrivalled collection of life specimen of non sentient life forms. More than 1,500,000 Zoo keepers 55,000 Zoologists and 1,200,000 Janitors, Specialists and Technicians take care of nearly 20 Million specimen and over 50 Million life visitors annually. (In addition to countless virtual tours) everything on Venus revolves around |Zoology, Botany and Biology. The Zoo grew out of the Collection of the Neugruber Zoological Institute that is still on Venus. The University of Venusturns out the finest biologists and Zoologists. Companies on Venus manufacture Animal and pet foods, specialized Zoological Equipment and Bio-lab equipment. There are specimen dealers, Exotic Specimen dealers, Animal and Plant brokers, Zoo Facility Planers, Zoo Exhibit Construction Companies. Animal and Life From research institutes. In Gagarin City is the largest collection of Microbes and Bacteria (With a special Virus Section on a special Space Station around Venus) It is both a Mecca for Scientists and a High Secure area with special Safety conditions found in no other city.

Venus is represented as Planet in the Assembly only since 3500 , it was until then “a region of Terra”. The classical definition of Venus as a female Planet was attempted several times by small usually female movements but never gained enough traction to make any cultural changes. Except for Aphrodite City, which maintains an Female Only population and does not allow male residents. It did not last long and the “Aphrodite Movement” and the City almost died out, it was revived by a clever marketing company (Subdivision of DeNoir) and is again a Female Only City, but is a tourist attraction theme park with adult entertainment themes only (Minors are not admitted) that is almost as popular as the Zoo.

Venus is part of the Sol System Association Government based on Ceres and has a local Council for civil matters. Most of the Council is hired and are paid employees. The Five Venus Magistratesleading the Council are elected every 4 years from a pool of candidates by all Venusians. ( Magistrate Zoo, Magistrate Commerce, Magistrate Civil Services, Magistrate Civil Order, Magistrate Civil Engineering) The Planet is represented by a Representative that is a paid Employee of the Venusian Council. The Planet maintains Union Laws but has an extensive Local Ordinance Catalogue especially dealing with licensing and permits of life-form transfer, storage, display and such topics. There is a Special Court of the UnionJudicial Branch on Venus. Dealing exclusively with Life-form laws, permits, permit violations and the like. The same is true to a Special Branch of the Union Police that specialized in Life-form traffic in all its forms. Both the Court and the Police departments deal with such cases Union wide. Both departments are special trained and educated on Venus . The Union Fire Department has a special Bio Hazard Incident Response Team here

Union Installations: Union Post Office, Union Schools, Federal Police Precinct, Union Court, Union Fire Department (Bio Haz), Union College, Union Accredited University, Xchange, Science Council HQ,

Import: Anything related to Biology, Zoology, Life forms. Machinery, Luxury Goods, General Groceries

Export: Anything related to Biology, Zoology, Life Forms, Drugs, Bio Chemicals

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